What are Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)

Multipotent stromal cells, commonly known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are cells with the ability to differentiate and proliferate. They are extracted from tissues such as the umbilical cord, bone marrow (bone marrow stem cells, BMSCs), and adipose tissue (adipose stem cells, ASCs).

Due to their proliferation and differentiation capabilities, these cells are considered an invaluable therapeutic option for managing a wide range of diseases caused by acute or chronic tissue degeneration. Clinical trials conducted to date suggest that these cells, when produced under optimal conditions, offer a safe therapeutic alternative that could significantly improve the quality of life for patients with diverse tissue conditions, including skin, articular and meniscal cartilage, bone, ligament structures, and even myocardium. It is crucial to produce these cells under ideal conditions to ensure their identity, functional characteristics, and safety, thereby enhancing their therapeutic potential for the benefit of patients.

Their therapeutic efficacy has consistently been demonstrated in both clinical and preclinical models. The results of these experiments indicate that the therapeutic capacity of these cells not only involves replacing lost cells in diseased tissues by differentiating into the respective tissue lineages but also extends to modulating other tissue-related processes associated with health and disease. These processes include neovascularization, modification of the extracellular matrix, and immune system function, all influenced by the biological effects of molecules released by these remarkable cells.

These Cells Capabilities

It is accepted that they have the ability to modulate the activity of the immune system, thereby promoting processes that facilitate tissue regeneration. For instance, research has demonstrated that these cells can induce the production of M2 monocytes, while also suppressing the activity of helper T lymphocytes (Th), natural killer cells (NK), and dendritic cells. These effects directly impact the clinical condition of patients with immune-related disorders, as well as contribute to essential biological processes for overall tissue regeneration. These processes include neovascularization, extracellular matrix reorganization, and activation of tissue-resident stem cells.